NodeJS to Ruby on Rails

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How to convert from NodeJS to Ruby on Rails


Converting an application from NodeJS to Ruby on Rails can seem daunting initially, especially if you're more proficient in JavaScript and the NodeJS ecosystem. However, understanding the differences, parallels, and best practices can significantly ease the process. This guide will walk you through the crucial steps for a smooth transition.

Understanding the Architectural Differences

Both NodeJS and Ruby on Rails are popular for web development but they come with different philosophies and architectural designs.


  • JavaScript-based: Uses JavaScript or TypeScript.
  • Asynchronous and Non-blocking: Leverages async operations, using callbacks, promises, and async/await.
  • Event-driven: Based on an event loop.

Ruby on Rails

  • Ruby-based: Follows Ruby syntax and conventions.
  • Synchronous: Most operations are synchronous.
  • MVC Framework: Follows Model-View-Controller architecture ensuring a clear separation of concerns.

Setting Up Ruby on Rails

Before converting your NodeJS application, you will need to set up Rails:

gem install rails
rails new myapp
cd myapp

Rails comes with a rich set of built-in features which might have required additional packages or middleware in NodeJS.

Migrating Middleware to Rails

NodeJS relies heavily on middleware like Express routers and body parsers. Rails offers similar functionality through controllers and built-in middleware.

NodeJS Example

const express = require('express');
const app = express();

app.use('/api', apiRouter);

app.listen(3000, () => console.log('Server running on port 3000'));

Equivalent in Rails

In Rails, these responsibilities are divided between routing, controllers, and ActiveRecord for database interactions:

# config/routes.rb
Rails.application.routes.draw do
  namespace :api do
    resources :examples

# app/controllers/api/examples_controller.rb
module Api
  class ExamplesController < ApplicationController
    def index
      @examples = Example.all
      render json: @examples

Migrating Database Models

NodeJS often uses ORM libraries like Sequelize or Mongoose. Rails uses ActiveRecord as its ORM.

NodeJS Model (using Sequelize)

const { Sequelize, DataTypes } = require('sequelize');
const sequelize = new Sequelize('sqlite::memory:');

const Example = sequelize.define('Example', {
  name: {
    type: DataTypes.STRING,
    allowNull: false

module.exports = Example;

Equivalent in Rails

# db/migrate/20230327000000_create_examples.rb
class CreateExamples < ActiveRecord::Migration[6.0]
  def change
    create_table :examples do |t|
      t.string :name, null: false


# app/models/example.rb
class Example < ApplicationRecord

Handling Authentication

Authentication methods often need significant changes. Libraries like Passport.js in NodeJS have their Ruby equivalents in Devise or Auth0.

NodeJS Authentication (using Passport)

const passport = require('passport');
const LocalStrategy = require('passport-local').Strategy;

passport.use(new LocalStrategy(
  function(username, password, done) {
    User.findOne({ username: username }, function(err, user) {
      if (err) { return done(err); }
      if (!user) { return done(null, false); }
      if (!user.verifyPassword(password)) { return done(null, false); }
      return done(null, user);

Equivalent in Rails (using Devise)

First, add Devise to your Gemfile and run the bundle command:

gem 'devise'

Then, set up Devise:

rails generate devise:install
rails generate devise User
rails db:migrate

Converting View Templates

NodeJS commonly uses templating engines like EJS or Handlebars. Rails uses Embedded Ruby (ERB) by default, although various options are available.

NodeJS View (using EJS)

<!-- views/index.ejs -->
    <h1>Hello <%= %></h1>

Equivalent in Rails

<!-- app/views/home/index.html.erb -->
    <h1>Hello <%= %></h1>


Converting from NodeJS to Ruby on Rails involves understanding not just the syntax but the architectural paradigms and conventions that Rails enforces. Given its opinionated nature, Rails can simplify much of the boilerplate code that is often necessary in a NodeJS setup. While the learning curve for Ruby and Rails may be steep initially, the framework's productivity gains can be quite rewarding in the long run.

By following the steps and examples outlined in this guide, you should be well-equipped to start your journey of converting a NodeJS application to Ruby on Rails. Happy coding!

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