Rust to Swift

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How to convert from Rust to Swift

Understanding the Basics

Converting code from one programming language to another can be a challenging task. In the case of Rust to Swift, both languages share several modern programming features such as strong typing, safety, and performant code generation. However, their syntax and standard libraries differ significantly. If you're proficient in Rust but less familiar with Swift, this guide will ease the transition and help you convert your Rust code to Swift effectively.

Syntax Differences between Rust and Swift

Variables and Constants

In Rust, you declare variables with let and mut:

let x = 5;
let mut y = 10;
y = 15;

In Swift, you use let for constants and var for variables:

let x = 5
var y = 10
y = 15


A function in Rust might look like this:

fn my_function(a: i32, b: i32) -> i32 {
    return a + b;

In Swift, the equivalent function would be:

func myFunction(a: Int, b: Int) -> Int {
    return a + b

Note that Swift uses func instead of fn, and the return type follows the parameter list separated by ->.

Structs and Enums


Rust struct definition:

struct Point {
    x: i32,
    y: i32,

let p = Point { x: 10, y: 20 };

Swift struct definition:

struct Point {
    var x: Int
    var y: Int

let p = Point(x: 10, y: 20)


Enums in Rust:

enum Direction {

let d = Direction::Up;

Enums in Swift:

enum Direction {
    case up
    case down
    case left
    case right

let d = Direction.up

Swift enums use case for each variant and are often written in camelCase.

Memory Management

One of the major differences between Rust and Swift is memory management. Rust uses a system of ownership with strict borrowing rules to manage memory without a garbage collector. Swift, on the other hand, uses Automatic Reference Counting (ARC).

Ownership and Borrowing in Rust

Rust function with ownership:

fn take_ownership(s: String) {
    println!("{}", s);

ARC in Swift

Swift function leveraging ARC:

func takeOwnership(s: String) {

While Rust ensures memory safety at compile time, Swift manages it at runtime with reference counting, which may influence how you structure your programs.

Error Handling

In Rust, errors are handled using Result and Option enums:

fn divide(numerator: f64, denominator: f64) -> Result<f64, String> {
    if denominator == 0.0 {
        return Err(String::from("Cannot divide by zero"));
    Ok(numerator / denominator)

In Swift, error handling uses throws and try:

enum DivisionError: Error {
    case divideByZero

func divide(_ numerator: Double, by denominator: Double) throws -> Double {
    if denominator == 0 {
        throw DivisionError.divideByZero
    return numerator / denominator

Collections and Iterators

Rust example using vectors and iterators:

let v = vec![1, 2, 3];
for i in v.iter() {
    println!("{}", i);

Equivalent Swift code using arrays:

let v = [1, 2, 3]
for i in v {

In Swift, arrays are used instead of vectors, and you can iterate through them directly with a for loop.


Rust uses std::thread for concurrency:

use std::thread;

thread::spawn(|| {
    println!("This is a thread");

Swift uses Grand Central Dispatch (GCD) or async/await for concurrency: {
    print("This is a thread")


Converting code from Rust to Swift involves understanding the fundamental differences in syntax, memory management, error handling, and concurrency models. By following the outlined sections, you can effectively translate and refactor your Rust code to Swift while leveraging the strengths of each language. Use this guide as your Free Rust to Swift Code Converter and transform your projects seamlessly.

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Frequently Asked Questions

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